Moreover, one study also suggested the suppression of lung cancer metastasis by concurrently combining hyperthermia and radiotherapy . and Immunotherapy Radiotherapy is a widely used, well-established anti-tumor treatment that has shown significant clinical outcomes. Utilizing ionizing radiation, radiotherapy generates excessive oxidative stress and induces DNA damage, such as single or double DNA strand breaks, and tumor cell deaths . As radiation can penetrate the body, and can be accurately limited to the depth of interest, AZD2858 radiotherapy is a non-invasive and spatially specific strategy compared to other anti-tumor therapies . However, some tumor cells can be radioresistant, showing resistance to radiation-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage-induced cell death through various intracellular pathways [3,4]. Although increased radiation dose is more likely to induce tumor cell deaths, an excessively high radiation dose can induce damage in adjacent normal tissue and related side effects. For this reason, several radiosensitization strategies have been developed for better therapeutic efficacy. Mostly, combinations of radiosensitizing chemotherapy and radiotherapy are used, providing better post-therapy outcomes . In addition, immunotherapy, which elevates systemic immunity against tumor cells, has shown radiosensitizing effects and better therapeutic outcomes . However, radioresistance has not been fully overcome, AZD2858 and current studies focus on novel strategies for enhancing therapeutic efficacy. Immunotherapy enhances the immune cells ability to recognize and target tumor cells, leading to their elimination. The advantages of immunotherapy include high anti-tumor specificity and minimal side effects by utilizing the patients own immune system . Current immunotherapies focus on suppressing tumor cell Rabbit polyclonal to KCTD19 evasion using antibodies that inhibit immune checkpoint molecules, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 (PD-1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) . Antibodies specific for these molecules are called immune checkpoint blockades, and include anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) and anti-PD-1 (nivolumab and pembrolizumab) antibodies, which are United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for clinical treatment with significant therapeutic outcomes . Furthermore, current studies covering the radiosensitization effect of immunotherapy suggest the potential of combining immunotherapy and radiotherapy . However, the biggest obstacle in immunotherapy application is the relatively low efficacy, and difficulty in achieving tumor cell-specific immunogenicity, compared to other anti-tumor therapies . Although immune checkpoint blockade antibodies should directly bind AZD2858 to the tumor cell surface for its effect, recent studies suggested that the limitation of immunotherapy is the inefficient delivery to tumor sites . This was also supported by other studies that suggested a novel immune checkpointblockade delivery system, through conjugation with nanoparticles and homing molecules, for efficient delivery. However, the therapeutic significance was still low, and current immunotherapies need further modification for clinically meaningful immunogenic effects. To better induce immunity against tumor cells, immunogenic therapeutic adjuvants were suggested, some of which showed significantly increased therapeutic efficacy with low normal tissue damage . Recent studies also applied these immunogenic adjuvants to tumor cell sensitization against therapies. For example, platinum-based chemotherapies including cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin are widely used as anti-tumor treatments, and show immunogenic effects through cell death induction AZD2858 and the release of death-associated molecular patterns, which activate pro-inflammatory signaling pathways . Similarly, the immunogenic effects of other cytotoxic chemicals also supported this phenomenon [14,15]. However, these chemicals also showed cytotoxicity to normal tissues and induced severe side effects, which slows their clinical application [16,17]. Recently, immunogenic biological derivatives were suggested as an immunogenic approach with fewer side effects. Biological derivatives, such as peptides, glycosides, and natural products, have shown significant immunogenicity through immune cell activation and tumor cell deaths [18,19,20]. Although these studies supported the crucial role and promising potential of immunogenic anti-tumor therapies, neither these adjuvants nor immunotherapy could fulfill the demanding therapeutic efficacy and tumor cell-specific delivery, leaving them as major obstacles to overcome. Alternatively, hyperthermia was recently suggested as an AZD2858 immunogenic treatment with spatial specificity and high efficacy . And the modification of temperature and treatment.
Moreover, one study also suggested the suppression of lung cancer metastasis by concurrently combining hyperthermia and radiotherapy